Investigation of the amount of bisphenol A in commercial bottled water (offered in Ardabil market) and optimization of ozonation to reduce it

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 PhD Graduate of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran

4 Associate Professor, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

Abstract

Bisphenol A is a chemical substance that impairs estrogenic endocrine and the presence of BPA in water causes various problems for human health. The present study aims to evaluate the amount of BPA in bottled waters in Ardabil and to optimize the ozone condition for reducing it in water. For this purpose, 5 samples were selected out of 13 brands of bottled water. One sample of each brand was tested on the first day and 4 other samples were tested after 30 days of storage at temperatures of 5, 15, 25, and 40 °C using a high-performance liquid chromatography device. To determine the ozonation efficiency, at first, the concentration of consuming ozone, pH of the environment, duration of ozonation, and initial concentration of BPA were optimized and then tested under optimal conditions. On the first day, the amount of BPA in all brands was within the limits allowed by the Department of Health of America (20 µg/L). By increasing the temperature of storage, the amount of BPA increased in all samples and at 40 °C, its amount exceeded the allowable limit in 3 brands. Optimal conditions are achieved at an ozone concentration of 6 mg/l, pH equal to 7, concentration of dissolved BPA equal to 10 mg/l, and ozonation time in 10 minutes. Furthermore, ozonation in these conditions removed 90% of BPA in water. In general, it can be declared that the contamination of BPA in bottled waters increases during preservation, and especially at temperatures higher than a refrigerator (out of the refrigerator), and ozonation under optimized condition is an effective method to reduce it.

Keywords


  • · Alimohammadi, M., Mehrabbegi, M., Nazmara, S., Haghighi-Darpepe, M. and Kazemi-Moghadam, V. (2013). Evaluation of bisphenol A in several brands of bottled drinking water in Iran. Iranian Journal of Toxicology, 8: 11-15.
  • · Beverly, S. R. (2011). Bisphenol A: an endocrine disruptor with widespread exposure and multiple effects. The Journal of Steroid biochemistry and molecular biology, 127(1-2): 27-34.
  • · Bin, X., Naiyun, G., Min, R., Hong, W. and Haihui, W. (2007). Degradation of endocrine disruptor bisphenol A in drinking water by ozone oxidation. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering in China, 1: 350-356.
  • · Cooper, J.E., Kendig, E.L. and Belcher, S.M. (2011). Assessment of bisphenol A released from reusable plastic, aluminium and stainless-steel water bottles. Chemosphere, 85(6): 943-947.
  • · Debordea, M., Rabouana, S., Mazelliera, P., Jean-Pierre, D. and Bernard, L. (2008). Oxidation of bisphenol A by ozone in aqueous solution. A Journal of the International Water Association, 42: 4299-4308.
  • · European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). (2007). Opinion of the Scientific Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (AFC) related to 2,2-BIS (4-Hydroxyphenyl Propane. EFSA Journal, 5(1): 428.
  • · European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). (2012). Scientific Opinion on the maintenance of the list of QPS biological agents intentionally added to food and feed. EFSA Journal,18(2): 5966.
  • · European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). (2017). The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2016. EFSA Journal, 16(12): 262.
  • · Forghani, M., Sadeghi, G. and Peyda, M. (2018). The Presence of 17 Beta-Estradiol in the Environment: Health Effects and Increasing Environmental Concerns. International Journal of Epidemiologic Research, 17: 151-158.
  • · González-Castro, M., Olea-Serrano, M., Rivas-Velasco, A., Medina-Rivero, E., Ordoñez-Acevedo, L.G. and De León-Rodríguez, A. (2011). Phthalates and bisphenols migration in Mexican food cans and plastic food containers. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 86: 627-631.
  • · Irmak, S., Erbatur, O. and Akgerman, A. (2005). Degradation of 17β-estradiol and bisphenol A in aqueous medium by using ozone and ozone/UV techniques. Journal of Hazardous Materials B, 126, 54–62.
  • · Jafari, A., Abasabad, R. and Salehzadeh, A. (2009). Endocrine disrupting contaminants in water resources and sewage in Hamadan City of Iran. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering, 6(2): 89-96.
  • · Jin, X. (2004). Determinaon of 4-octylphenol, 4‐nonylphenol and bisphenol A in surface waters from the Haihe River in Tianjin by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring. Chemosphere, 56(11): 1113-1119.
  • · Kawahata, H., Ohta, H., Inoue, M. and Suzuki, A. (2004). Endo-crine disrupter nonylphenol and bisphenol A con-tamination in Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands, Ja-pan––within coral reefs and adjacent river mouths. Chemosphere, 55: 1519-1527.
  • · Kazemi, A., Younesi, H. and Bahramifar, N. (2013). Migration of bisphenol A and nonylphenol from mineral water bottles and disposable plastic containers into water at different temperatures. Iranian Journal of Health and Environment, 6(4): 515-522.
  • · Li, X., Ying, G.G., Su, H.C., Yang, X.B. and Wang, L. (2010). Simultaneous determination and assessment of 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and triclosan in tap water, bottled water and baby bottles. Environment International, 36: 557-562.
  • · Liang Cao, X. and Corriveau, J. (2008). Migration of Bisphenol A from polycarbonate baby and water bottles into water under severe conditions. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(15): 6378-6381.
  • · Liu, Z., Wardenier, N. and Hosseinzadeh, S. (2018). Degradation of bisphenol A by combining ozone with UV and H2O2 in aqueous solutions: mechanism and optimization. Clean Technology and Environment Policy, 20: 2109–2118.
  • · Manal, A., Madi, J., Mahmoud, S., Ghada, A.,Nedal, A. (2019). Testing baby bottles for the presence of residual and migrated bisphenol A. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 7: 191-197.
  • · Mehrabani, M., Achari, G. and  Langford, C. (2015). Advanced oxidative degradation of bisphenol A and bisphenol S. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science, 10(4): 92-102.
  • · Muhammad, U., Felicity, R., Linhua, F., Hamidi, A. A. (2013). Application of ozone for the removal of bisphenol A from water and wastewater – A review. Chemosphere, 90: 2197–2207.
  • · Pollock, T., Greville, L.J., Weaver, R.E., Radenovic, M. and deCatanzaro, D. (2019). Bisphenol S modulates concentrations of bisphenol A and oestradiol in female and male mice. Xenobiotica, 49(5): 540-548.
  • · Rangel-Mendez, J.R., Matos, J., Cházaro-Ruiz, L.F., González-Castillo, A.C. and Barrios-Yáñez, G. (2018). Microwave-assisted synthesis of C-doped TiO2 and ZnO hybrid nanostructured materials as quantum-dots sensitized solar cells. Applied Surface Science, 434: 744-755.
  • · Rastkari, N., Yunesian, M. and Ahmadkhaniha, R. (2011). Levels of bisphenol a and bisphenol f in canned foods in Iran markets. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering, 4: 44-51.
  • · Rezaeian, S. and Ahmadzadeh, J. (2012). Assessment of food habits and their association with cardiovascular risk factors in employees. International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine and Public Health, 4: 339-344.
  • · Rodriguez, R., Castillo, E. and Sinuco, D. (2019). Validation of an hPLC Method for Determination of Bisphenol-A Migration from Baby Feeding Bottles. Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry, 19: 1-6.
  • · Russo, G., Barbato, F., Cardone, E., Fattore, M., Albrizio, S. and Grumetto, L. (2018). Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S release in milk under household conditions from baby bottles marketed in Italy. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, 53: 116-120.
  • · Shrinithivihahshini, N., Mahamuni, D. and Praveen, N. (2014). Bisphenol A migration study in baby feeding bottles of selected brands available in the Indian market. Current Science, 35: 1081-1084.
  • · Simon, E., Schifferli, A., Bucher, T.B., Olbrich, D., Werner, I. and Vermeirssen, E.L. (2019). Solid-phase extraction of estrogens and herbicides from environmental waters for bioassay analysis-effects of sample volume on recoveries. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 411(10): 2057-2069.
  • · Toyooka, T. and Oshige, Y. (2000). Determination of alkylphenols in mineral water contained in PET bottles by liquid chromatography with coulometric detection. Analytical Sciences, 16(10): 1071-1076.
  • · Wang, J. and Schnute, W. C. (2010). Direct analysis of trace level bisphenol A, octylphenols and nonylphenol in bottled water and leached from bottles by ultra‐highperformance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 24: 2605-2510.
  • · Wang, X. and Lim T-T. (2010). Solvothermal synthesis of C–N codoped TiO2 and photocatalytic evaluation for bisphenol A degradation using a visible-light irradiated LED photoreactor. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 100: 355-364.
  • · Xue, J., Kannan, P., Kumosani, T.A., Al-Malki, A.L. and Kannan, K. (2018). Resin-based dental sealants as a source of human exposure to bisphenol analogues, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, and its derivatives. Environmental Research, 162: 35-40.
  • · Ying, Y., Hongguang, G., Yongli, Z., Qinzu, D. and Jing, J. (2016). Degradation of bisphenol A using ozone/persulfate process: Kinetics and mechanism. Water, Air and Soil Pollutants, 227: 53-62.