Antimicrobial effects of edible gluten films incorporated with vanillin

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Instructor, Department of Food Science and Technology, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza, Iran.

2 Instructor, Department of Polymer Engineering, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza, Iran.

3 - Graduate of Food Science and Technology, Shahreza Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahreza, Iran.

Abstract

   This research aimed to evaluate the antibacterial effect of vanillin on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using agar diffusion technique. For this reason, edible films were manufactured from wheat gluten containing 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 4% w/w. The inhibitory effect of the films was assessed based on the surface area of inhibition zone. According to the results, 0.5% of vanillin had no inhibitory effect neither on E. coli nor S. aureus. However, vanillin concentrations higher than 1% could have antibacterial effect on E. coli and S. aureus. Results revealed that with the increasing of vanillin concentration, the surface area of inhibition zone was increased. Moreover, the increasing of vanillin concentration could lead to an increase in the extensibility and elongation of the gluten film. Interpenetrating network cross-linking mechanisms might account for the Schiff base reaction between gluten and vanillin. Although significantly different inhibitory effect was observed between E. coli and S. aureus, the vanillin films were effective on both bacteria.

Keywords


  • Benhammou, N., Atik Bekkara, F. and Kadifkova Panovska, T. (2008). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the Pistacia lentiscus and Pistacia atlantica extracts. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 2: 22-28.
  • Cuq, B., Gontard, N. and Guilbert, S. (1998). Proteins as agricultural polymers for packaging production. Cereal Chemistry, 75(1): 1–9.
  • Das, K., Tiwari, R.K.S. and Shrivastava, D.K. (2010). Techniques for evaluation of medicinal plant products as antimicrobial agent: Current methods and future trends. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 4(2): 104-111.
  • Fitzgerald, D.J., Stratford, M. and Narbad, A. (2003). Analysis of the inhibition of food spoilage yeasts by vanillin. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 86: 113-122.
  • Fitzgerald, D.J., Stratford, M., Gasson, M.J., Ueckert, J., Bos, A. and Narbad, A. (2004). Mode of antimicrobial action of vanillin against Escherichia coliLactobacillus plantarum and Listeria innocuaJournal Applied Microbiology; 97(1): 104-13.
  • Gallstedt, M., Mattozzi, A., Johansson, E. and Hedenqvist, M.S. (2004). Transport and tensile properties of compression-molded wheat gluten films. Biomacromolecules, 5(5): 2020–2028.
  • Irissin – Mangata, J., Bouduin, G., Boutevin, B. and Gontard, N. (2001).New plasticizers for Wheat gluten   films. European polymer journal, 37: 1533-1541.
  • International Organization for Standardization (ISO), (2006). Wheat and wheat Flour - Gluten Content -Part 2: Determination Of wet gluten by mechanical means. ISO No. 21415-2: 2006.
  • Joerger, R.D. (2007). Antimicrobial films for food applications: A quantitative analysis of their effectiveness. Packaging Technology and Science, 20: 231–273.
  • Kirk, O. (2005). Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology; 5th edition, John Wiley & Sons.publication.
  • Kuktaite, R., Plivelic, T.S., Cerenius, Y., Hedenqvist, M.S., Gallstedt, M., Marttila, S., et al. (2011). Structure and morphology of wheat gluten films: From polymeric protein aggregates toward superstructure arrangements. Biomacromolecules, 12(5): 1438–1448.
  • Micard, V., Belamri, R., Morel, M.H. and Guilbert, S. (2000).Properties of chemically and physically treated  wheat gluten films. J.Agric.Food Chemistry, 48: 2948-2953.
  • Nielsen, E. and Landel, R.F. (1994).  Mechanical Properties of Polymers and Composites. Second edition, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York.
  • Payan, R. (2001).Introduction of Cereal Technology, Aiezh pub. 2nd Edition.
  • Peng, H., Hua Xiong, H., Jinhua Li, J., Xie, M., Yuzhen L., Bai, C., et al. (2010). Vanillin cross-linked chitosan microspheres for controlled release of resveratrol. Food Chemistry, 121: 23–28.
  • Pintado, C., Ferreira, M. and Sousa, I. (2009). Properties of whey protein-based films containing organic acids and nisin to control Listeria monocytogenes. Journal of Food Protection, 72(9): 1891–1896.
  • Pranoto, Y., Rakshit, S.K. and Salokhe, V.M. (2005). Enhancing antimicrobial activity of chitosan films by incorporating garlic oil, potassium sorbate and nisin. LWT- Food Science and Technology, 38(8): 859–865.
  • Rakchoy, S., Suppakul, P. and Jinkarn, T. (2009). Antimicrobial effects of vanillin coated solution for coating paperboard intended for packaging bakery products. Asian Journal of  Food and Agro-Industry, 2(04): 138-147.
  • Ravishankar, S., Zhu, L., Olsen, C.W., Mchugh, T.H. and Mendel Friedman, M. (2009). Edible Apple Film Wraps Containing Plant Antimicrobials Inactivate Foodborne Pathogens on Meat and Poultry Products. Journal of Food Science, 74(8): 440-445.
  • Seydim, A. C. and Sarikus, G. (2006). Antimicrobial activity of whey protein based edible films incorporated with oregano, rosemary and garlic essential oils. Food Research International, 39(5): 639–644.
  • Tanada-Palmu, P.S. and Grosso, C.R.F. (2002). Edible wheat gluten films: development, mechanical and barrier properties and application to strawberries. B.Ceppa, Curitiba, 20: 291-300.
  • Tanada-Palmu, P.S. and Grosso, C.R.F. (2003). Development and characterization of edible films based on gluten from semi-hard and soft Brazilian wheat flours. Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos. Campinas, 23(2): 264-269.
  • Tanada-Palmu, P.S. and Grosso, C.R.F.  (2005).Effect of edible Wheat gluten –based films and coatings on refrigerated strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) quality. Postharvest Biology Technology, 36: 199-208. 
  • Ture, H., Eroglu, E., Soyer, F. and Ozen, B. (2008). Antifungal activity of biopolymers containing natamycin and rosemary extract against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium roquefortii. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 43(11), 2026–2032.
  • Türe, H., Gallstedt, M. and Hedenqvist , M.S. (2012). Antimicrobial compression-moulded wheat gluten films containing potassium sorbate. Food Research International, 45: 109–115.
  • Walton, N.J., Mayer, M.J. and Narbad, A. (2003)Molecules of interest Vanillin. Phytochemistry, 63: 505-515.
  • Wen-Xian, D., Roberto, J., Bustillos, A., Sui Sheng, T., Tara, H. and McHugh, T.H. (2011). Antimicrobial volatile essential oils in edible films for food safety,against microbial pathogens: communicating current research and technological advances. A. Méndez-Vilas,(Editors), pp. 1124-1134.