Study on the role of age, sex and season on the prevalence of fascioliasis and dicrocoeliasis in animals slaughtered in Tabriz slaughterhouse

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

2 Student Master of Sciences in Food Hygiene & Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Food Hygiene and Aquatic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

Abstract

Liver trematodes, including Fasciola and Dicrocoelium species, are zoonotic parasites that cause high mortality and economic losses in ruminants. This study aimed to investigate the effect of age, sex, and season on the prevalence of fasciolosis and dicrosliosis in slaughtered animals in the Tabriz slaughterhouse. During two years, livers of 4150 cows, 500 buffaloes, 2000 goats, and 5000 sheep were examined for the presence of Fasciola hepaticaFasciola gigantica, and Dicrocoelium dendriticum by incisions on the liver and ocular observation. The results showed that 5.4%, 16%, and 6% of slaughtered cows, sheep, and goats were infected with liver trematodes (P<0.05), respectively. Of the 500 buffaloes studied, no liver trematode was isolated. The prevalence of parasitic infection in all three animals increased significantly with the age (P<0.05). In female cows and sheep, the rate of liver trematode infection was significantly higher than in males (P<0.05). The highest and lowest prevalence was observed in summer in spring, respectively. The highest frequency of parasites and severity of infection in all studied animals was related to Dicrocoelium dendriticum and the lowest was related to Fasciola gigantica (P<0.05). Based on the market day price, the number of economic losses due to the condemnation of liver of cows, sheep, and goats due to trematode infections were estimated at 402,240,000 (3656.72 USD), 576,576,000 (5241.6 USD), and 28,545,000 (259.5 USD) RIAL, respectively. Due to the history of the human fascioliasis epidemic and economic damage caused by liver condemnation in this area, effective control methods are suggested.

Keywords

Main Subjects


  • Ahmadi, N.A. and Meshkehkar, M. (2010). Prevalence and Long Term Trend of Liver Fluke Infections in Sheep, Goats and Cattle Slaughtered in Khuzestan, Southwestern Iran. Journal of paramedical sciences, 1(2): 26–31.
  • Arbabi, M., Nezami, E., Hooshyar, H. and Delavari, M. (2018). Epidemiology and economic loss of fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis in Arak, Iran. Veterinary World, 11(12): 1648.
  • Bari, S., Sarvi, S., Daryani, A., Ziaeei Hezariaribi, H., Arababi, M. and Mizani, A. (2015). Dicrocoelium Dentriticum Infection among Domestic Animals. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, 25(132): 362–370. [In Persian]
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  • Dhaliwal, B.B.S. and Dutt Juyal, P. (2015). Parasitic Zoonoses. 1nd Edition, Springer, New York, pp. 80-90.
  • El-Tahawy, A.S., Kwan, N., Sugiura, K. (2018). Fasciola hepatica infection in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in three provinces of the Nile Delta, Egypt: A cross-sectional study. The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 80: 28–35.
  • Eslami, A., Hosseini, S.H. and Meshgi, B. (2009). Animal fasciolosis in north of Iran. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 38(4): 132–135.
  • Ezatpour, B., Hasanvand, A., Azami, M., Anbari, K. and Ahmadpour, F. (2015). Prevalence of liver fluke infections in slaughtered animals in Lorestan, Iran. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 39(4): 725–729.
  • Falah, M., Matini, M., Beygomkia, E. and Moubedi, I. (2010). Study of zoonotic tissue parasites (hydatid cyst, Fasciola, dicrocoelium and sarcocystis) in Hamadan abattoir. Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine, 17(3): 5–11.
  • Ghazani, M.H.M., Valilou, M.R., Ahmadzadeh, A.R., Karami, A.R., Zirak, K. (2008). The prevalence of sheep liver trematodes in the northwest region of Iran. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 32: 305–307.
  • Imani Baran, A. and Cheraghi Saray, H. (2016). Coprologic survey on ruminant’s fasciolosis in east Azerbaijan province during 2014-2015. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 10(38): 103–120. [In Persian]
  • Islam, K.M., Rahman, M., Islam, M.S., Adhikary, G.N. and Rauf, S.M.A. (2014). Epidemiological studies of fascioliasis (Fasciola gigantica) in black Bengal goats. Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 30: 152–156.
  • Jahanbakh Asl, S., Abtahi, V., Gorbani, M.A., Tadayoni, M. and Valayi, A. (2014). Investigation of temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation in Tabriz city by cluster analysis method. Geographic Space, 50: 59–81.
  • Jithendran, K.P. and Bhat, T.K. (1999). Epidemiology of Parasitoses in Dairy Animals in the North West Humid Himalayan Region of India with Particular Reference to Gastrointestinal Nematodes. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 31(4): 205–214.
  • Keyyu, J.D., Monrad, J., Kyvsgaard, N.C. and Kassuku, A.A. (2005). Epidemiology of Fasciola gigantica and amphistomes in cattle on traditional, small-scale dairy and large-scale dairy farms in the southern highlands of Tanzania. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 37(4):303–314.
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  • Khoramian, H., Arbabi, M., Osqoi, M.M., Delavari, M., Hooshyar, H. and Asgari, M. (2014). Prevalence of ruminants fascioliasis and their economic effects in Kashan, center of Iran. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 4(11): 918–922.
  • Mahami-Oskouei, M., Dalimi, A., Forouzandeh- Moghadam, M. and rokni, M.b. (2012). Prevalence and severity of animal Fasciolosis in six. Journal of Kashan University of Medical Sciences, 16(3): 254–260. [In Persian]
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  • Mohamadzadeh, T., Shams, S., Khanaliha, K., Marhamatizadeh, M.H., Vafa, A. (2016). A study on prevalence of some helminthic infections of the liver and lungs among ruminants in abattoir of Fars province, Iran. Archives of Razi Institute, 71(4): 245–251.
  • Molazadeh, P. and Zohoor, A. (2002). Prevalence of liver Trematodes and hydatid cyst in animals in the Jiroft slaughterhouse. Journal of Research in Health Sciences, 1: 17–22. [In Persian]
  • Moshfe, A., Bagheri, M. and Mohebi Nobandeghany, Z. (2005). Prevalence of Fasciola Hepatica in Slaughtered livestock in Yasuj’s Slaughterhouse 1381- 1382. Armaghan-e-Danesh, 12(45): 23–29. [In Persian]
  • Mungube, E.O., Bauni, S.M., Tenhagen, B.A., Wamae, L.W., Nginyi, J.M. and Mugambi, J.M. (2006). The prevalence and economic significance of Fasciola gigantica and Stilesia hepatica in slaughtered animals in the semi-arid coastal Kenya. Tropical animal health and production, 38(6): 475–483.
  • Oryan, A., Mansourian, M., Moazeni, M., Nikahval, B. and Barband, S. (2011). Liver distomatosis in cattle, sheep and goats of Northeastern Iran. Global Veterinary Services and Agriculture, 6(3): 241–246.
  • Otranto, D. and Traversa, D. (2003). Dicrocoeliosis of ruminants: A little known fluke disease. Trends in Parasitology, 19(1): 12–15.
  • Pfukenyi, D.M., Monrad, J. and Mukaratirwa, S. (2005). Epidemiology and control of trematode infections in cattle in Zimbabwe: A review. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 76(1): 9–17.
  • Phiri, A.M., Phiri, I.K., Sikasunge, C.S. and Monrad, J. (2005). Prevalence of fasciolosis in Zambian cattle observed at selected abattoirs with emphasis on age, sex and origin. Journal of veterinary medicine. B, Infectious diseases and veterinary public health, 52(9): 414–416.
  • Sabzvarinezjad, G. (2007). Prevalence of zoonotic liver trematodes in slaughtered animals in Khoramabad slaughterehouse. Journal of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, 6(22): 51–54. [In Persian]
  • Salahi-Moghaddam, A. (2004).Study of Human Fascioliasis and its intermediate host in Mazandaran Province. Tehran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 8(3): 145-149. [In Persian]
  • Shaikh, A.A., Bilqees, F.M., Khan, M.M. (2004). Bile duct hyperplasia and associated abnormalities in the buffaloes infected with Fasciola gigantica. Pakestan Journal Zoology, 36: 231–238.
  • Soulsby, E.J.L. (1982). Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia.
  • Taira, N., Yoshifuji, H. and Boray, J.C. (1997). Zoonotic potential of infection with Fasciola spp. by consumption of freshly prepared raw liver containing immature flukes. International Journal for Parasitology, 27(7): 775–779.
  • Talari, S.A., Vakily, Z., Talari, M.R., Baghbani, A. and Targh, H. (2014). Prevalence of liver flukes infections in slaughtered animals in Kashan , Isfahan.
  • Talari, S.A., Zarichehr, V., Reza, T.M., Amroallah, B., Hossin, T., Amir, M., Akbar, T. et al., (2011). Prevalence of liver flukes infections in slaughtered animals in Kashan, Isfahan province, central Iran. Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology, 2(5): 14–18.
  • Tolosa, T. and Tigre, W. (2012). The Prevalence and Economic Significance of Bovine Fasciolosis at Jimma, Abattoir, Ethiopia. The Internet Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 3(2).
  • Van de Venter, T. (2000). Emerging food-borne diseases: a global responsibility. Journal of Food, Nutrition and Agriculture, 4–13.

WHO. (1995). Control of foodborne trematode infections. Report of a WHO Study Group.

  • Ahmadi, N.A. and Meshkehkar, M. (2010). Prevalence and Long Term Trend of Liver Fluke Infections in Sheep, Goats and Cattle Slaughtered in Khuzestan, Southwestern Iran. Journal of paramedical sciences, 1(2): 26–31.
  • Arbabi, M., Nezami, E., Hooshyar, H. and Delavari, M. (2018). Epidemiology and economic loss of fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis in Arak, Iran. Veterinary World, 11(12): 1648.
  • Bari, S., Sarvi, S., Daryani, A., Ziaeei Hezariaribi, H., Arababi, M. and Mizani, A. (2015). Dicrocoelium Dentriticum Infection among Domestic Animals. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, 25(132): 362–370. [In Persian]
  • Daryani, A., Alaei, R., Arab, R., Sharif, M., Dehghan, M. and Ziaei, H. (2006). Prevalence of liver fluke infections in slaughtered animals in Ardabil province, Northwestern Iran. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 5: 408–411.
  • Dhaliwal, B.B.S. and Dutt Juyal, P. (2015). Parasitic Zoonoses. 1nd Edition, Springer, New York, pp. 80-90.
  • El-Tahawy, A.S., Kwan, N., Sugiura, K. (2018). Fasciola hepatica infection in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in three provinces of the Nile Delta, Egypt: A cross-sectional study. The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 80: 28–35.
  • Eslami, A., Hosseini, S.H. and Meshgi, B. (2009). Animal fasciolosis in north of Iran. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 38(4): 132–135.
  • Ezatpour, B., Hasanvand, A., Azami, M., Anbari, K. and Ahmadpour, F. (2015). Prevalence of liver fluke infections in slaughtered animals in Lorestan, Iran. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 39(4): 725–729.
  • Falah, M., Matini, M., Beygomkia, E. and Moubedi, I. (2010). Study of zoonotic tissue parasites (hydatid cyst, Fasciola, dicrocoelium and sarcocystis) in Hamadan abattoir. Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine, 17(3): 5–11.
  • Ghazani, M.H.M., Valilou, M.R., Ahmadzadeh, A.R., Karami, A.R., Zirak, K. (2008). The prevalence of sheep liver trematodes in the northwest region of Iran. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 32: 305–307.
  • Imani Baran, A. and Cheraghi Saray, H. (2016). Coprologic survey on ruminant’s fasciolosis in east Azerbaijan province during 2014-2015. Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 10(38): 103–120. [In Persian]
  • Islam, K.M., Rahman, M., Islam, M.S., Adhikary, G.N. and Rauf, S.M.A. (2014). Epidemiological studies of fascioliasis (Fasciola gigantica) in black Bengal goats. Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 30: 152–156.
  • Jahanbakh Asl, S., Abtahi, V., Gorbani, M.A., Tadayoni, M. and Valayi, A. (2014). Investigation of temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation in Tabriz city by cluster analysis method. Geographic Space, 50: 59–81.
  • Jithendran, K.P. and Bhat, T.K. (1999). Epidemiology of Parasitoses in Dairy Animals in the North West Humid Himalayan Region of India with Particular Reference to Gastrointestinal Nematodes. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 31(4): 205–214.
  • Keyyu, J.D., Monrad, J., Kyvsgaard, N.C. and Kassuku, A.A. (2005). Epidemiology of Fasciola gigantica and amphistomes in cattle on traditional, small-scale dairy and large-scale dairy farms in the southern highlands of Tanzania. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 37(4):303–314.
  • Khademvatan, S., Majidiani, H., Khalkhali, H., Taghipour, A., Asadi, N. and Yousefi, E. (2019). Prevalence of fasciolosis in livestock and humans: A systematic review and meta-analysis in Iran. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 65: 116–123.
  • Khan, M.N., Sajid, M.S., Khan, M.K., Iqbal, Z. and Hussain, A. (2010). Gastrointestinal helminthiasis: Prevalence and associated determinants in domestic ruminants of district Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan. Parasitology Research, 107(4): 787–794.
  • Khanjari, A., Bahonar, A., Fallah, S., Bagheri, M., Alizadeh, A., Fallah, M. et al., (2014). Prevalence of fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis in slaughtered sheep and goats in Amol Abattoir, Mazandaran, northern Iran. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 4(2): 120–124.
  • Khanjari, A., Partovi, R., Abbaszadeh, S., Nemati, G., Bahonar, A., Misaghi, A. et al., (2010). A retrospective survey of fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis in slaughtered animals in Meisam abattoir, Tehran, Iran (2005-2008), Veterinary Research Forum, 3(1): 174–178.
  • Khoramian, H., Arbabi, M., Osqoi, M.M., Delavari, M., Hooshyar, H. and Asgari, M. (2014). Prevalence of ruminants fascioliasis and their economic effects in Kashan, center of Iran. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 4(11): 918–922.
  • Mahami-Oskouei, M., Dalimi, A., Forouzandeh- Moghadam, M. and rokni, M.b. (2012). Prevalence and severity of animal Fasciolosis in six. Journal of Kashan University of Medical Sciences, 16(3): 254–260. [In Persian]
  • Moghaddam, A.S., Massoud, J., Mahmoodi, M., Mahvi, A.H., Periago, M. V, Artigas, P. et al., (2004). Human and animal fascioliasis in Mazandaran province, northern Iran. Parasitology Research, 94(1): 61–69.
  • Mohamadzadeh, T., Shams, S., Khanaliha, K., Marhamatizadeh, M.H., Vafa, A. (2016). A study on prevalence of some helminthic infections of the liver and lungs among ruminants in abattoir of Fars province, Iran. Archives of Razi Institute, 71(4): 245–251.
  • Molazadeh, P. and Zohoor, A. (2002). Prevalence of liver Trematodes and hydatid cyst in animals in the Jiroft slaughterhouse. Journal of Research in Health Sciences, 1: 17–22. [In Persian]
  • Moshfe, A., Bagheri, M. and Mohebi Nobandeghany, Z. (2005). Prevalence of Fasciola Hepatica in Slaughtered livestock in Yasuj’s Slaughterhouse 1381- 1382. Armaghan-e-Danesh, 12(45): 23–29. [In Persian]
  • Mungube, E.O., Bauni, S.M., Tenhagen, B.A., Wamae, L.W., Nginyi, J.M. and Mugambi, J.M. (2006). The prevalence and economic significance of Fasciola gigantica and Stilesia hepatica in slaughtered animals in the semi-arid coastal Kenya. Tropical animal health and production, 38(6): 475–483.
  • Oryan, A., Mansourian, M., Moazeni, M., Nikahval, B. and Barband, S. (2011). Liver distomatosis in cattle, sheep and goats of Northeastern Iran. Global Veterinary Services and Agriculture, 6(3): 241–246.
  • Otranto, D. and Traversa, D. (2003). Dicrocoeliosis of ruminants: A little known fluke disease. Trends in Parasitology, 19(1): 12–15.
  • Pfukenyi, D.M., Monrad, J. and Mukaratirwa, S. (2005). Epidemiology and control of trematode infections in cattle in Zimbabwe: A review. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 76(1): 9–17.
  • Phiri, A.M., Phiri, I.K., Sikasunge, C.S. and Monrad, J. (2005). Prevalence of fasciolosis in Zambian cattle observed at selected abattoirs with emphasis on age, sex and origin. Journal of veterinary medicine. B, Infectious diseases and veterinary public health, 52(9): 414–416.
  • Sabzvarinezjad, G. (2007). Prevalence of zoonotic liver trematodes in slaughtered animals in Khoramabad slaughterehouse. Journal of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, 6(22): 51–54. [In Persian]
  • Salahi-Moghaddam, A. (2004).Study of Human Fascioliasis and its intermediate host in Mazandaran Province. Tehran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 8(3): 145-149. [In Persian]
  • Shaikh, A.A., Bilqees, F.M., Khan, M.M. (2004). Bile duct hyperplasia and associated abnormalities in the buffaloes infected with Fasciola gigantica. Pakestan Journal Zoology, 36: 231–238.
  • Soulsby, E.J.L. (1982). Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia.
  • Taira, N., Yoshifuji, H. and Boray, J.C. (1997). Zoonotic potential of infection with Fasciola spp. by consumption of freshly prepared raw liver containing immature flukes. International Journal for Parasitology, 27(7): 775–779.
  • Talari, S.A., Vakily, Z., Talari, M.R., Baghbani, A. and Targh, H. (2014). Prevalence of liver flukes infections in slaughtered animals in Kashan , Isfahan.
  • Talari, S.A., Zarichehr, V., Reza, T.M., Amroallah, B., Hossin, T., Amir, M., Akbar, T. et al., (2011). Prevalence of liver flukes infections in slaughtered animals in Kashan, Isfahan province, central Iran. Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology, 2(5): 14–18.
  • Tolosa, T. and Tigre, W. (2012). The Prevalence and Economic Significance of Bovine Fasciolosis at Jimma, Abattoir, Ethiopia. The Internet Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 3(2).
  • Van de Venter, T. (2000). Emerging food-borne diseases: a global responsibility. Journal of Food, Nutrition and Agriculture, 4–13.

WHO. (1995). Control of foodborne trematode infections. Report of a WHO Study Group.