مطالعه ویژگی‌های کیفی، آلودگی‌های میکروبی، فلزات سنگین و میزان سموم در انواع مختلف برنج‌های تولید داخل و وارداتی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه نانوفناوری مواد غذایی، موسسه پژوهشی علوم و صنایع غذایی، مشهد، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه ایمنی و کنترل کیفیت مواد غذایی، موسسه پژوهشی علوم و صنایع غذایی علوم و صنایع غذایی، مشهد، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه طراحی ماشین‌آلات مواد غذایی، موسسه پژوهشی علوم و صنایع غذایی، مشهد، ایران؛ مؤسسه کیفیت رضوی، مشهد، ایران

4 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم و مهندسی صنایع غذایی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی آزاد اسلامی تهران واحد علوم دارویی، ایران

10.30495/jfh.2021.1912384.1290

چکیده

برنج از مهم‌ترین اقلام غذایی است که نیمی از جمعیت جهان به برنج به‌عنوان یک غذای اصلی وابسته است. در ایران نیز برنج محصولی استراتژیک به شمار می‌رود و پس از نان، قوت اصلی مردم است. ازاین‌رو انتظار می‌رود این محصول باکیفیت مناسب عرضه و در سبد خانوار قرار گیرد. در این پژوهش، ویژگی‌های کیفی، میزان ناخالصی، غلظت فلزات سنگین (کادمیوم، آرسنیک و سرب)، تعداد کپک و مخمر، میزان غلظت آفلاتوکسین و باقیمانده آفت‌کش‌ها در محصول برنج مناطق مختلف مازندران (گونه‌های طارم، شیرودی و ندا)، گیلان (گونه‌های طارم، علی کاظمی و هاشمی)، سه نمونه برنج ارگانیک (کشت اول، کشت دوم و قهوه‌ای) و برنج وارداتی از پاکستان (سه برند تجاری) و هندوستان (دو برند تجاری) قرار گرفت. بر اساس نتایج دامنه افزایش طولی معادل (26/7-68/6)، (62/7-60/7)، (62/7-68/6)، (00/7-50/6) و (20/6-80/5) میلی‌متر برای ارقام پاکستانی، هندی، مازندران، گیلان و ارگانیک مشاهده‌ گردید. ارقام هندیA  و B و گیلان (هاشمی) دارای کمترین و رقم پاکستانی A دارای بیشترین  ناخالصی بودند. بیشترین عطر به نمونه‌های گیلان (تالش)، مازندران (طارم) تعلق ‌داشت. بیشترین میزان ژلاتینه شدن نشاسته و کمترین  میزان فلزات سنگین در نمونه‌های ایرانی مشاهده شد. بیشترین مقدار فلزات سنگین در برنج‌های پاکستانی، پس‌ازآن در برنج‌های هندی و سپس ایرانی به دست آمد. طبق نتایج، غلظت آﻓﻼﺗﻮﮐﺴﯿﻦ در کلیه نمونه‌ها، به‌جز نمونه‌های پاکستانی، کمتر از حد تشخیص ﺑﻮد. با‌توجه ‌به نتایج، نمونه برنج ارگانیک کشت اول با کمترین مصرف سموم، حداقل میزان آلودگی‌های فلزات سنگین، میکروبی و مایکوتوکسین ها جهت تأمین سلامت جامعه قابل توصیه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of quality characteristics, microbial contamination, heavy metals and toxins in different types of internal and imported rice

نویسندگان [English]

  • S. Naji-Tabasi 1
  • A. Verdian 2
  • H. Zamani 3
  • L. Asghari 4
  • SH. Shirzaei 4
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Food Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Food Science and Technology (RIFST), Mashhad, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Food Safety and Quality Control, Research Institute of Food Science and Technology (RIFST), Mashhad, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Food Machineries, Research Institute of Food Science and Technology (RIFST), Mashhad, Iran; Razavi Quality Institute, Mashhad, Iran
4 Master student, Department of Food Industry Engineering, Islamic Azad University of Medical Sciences, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Iran
چکیده [English]

Rice is one of the major food commodities for half of the world's population. In Iran, rice is a strategic product that is the main strength of the people after bread, and it is expected this product supplies with appropriate quality and placed in the household basket. In this study, qualitative characteristics, amount of impurities, the concentration of heavy metals (cadmium, arsenic, and lead), microbial growth (mold and yeast), aflatoxin concentration, and pesticides in rice crop in different regions of Mazandaran (three species Tarom, Shiroodi, and Neda), Gilan (three species of Tarom, Ali Kazemi and Hashemi), three samples of organic rice (first crop, second crop and brown), and rice imported from Pakistan (three brands) and Indian rice (two brands) Was examined. The longitudinal range of increase was found to be 6.68-7.62, 7.60-7.62, 6.68-7.62, 6.50-7.00 and 5.80-6.20 mm for Pakistan, Indian, Mazandaran, Gilan and organic cultivars. Indian cultivars A, B, and Gilan (Hashemi) had the lowest, and Pakistani cultivar A had the highest impurities. Most of the perfumes belonged to Gilan (Talesh) and Mazandaran (Tarom). The highest starch gelatinisation and lowest amount of heavy metals were observed in Iranian cultivar samples. According to general estimates, the highest amount of heavy metals was measured in Pakistani rice, followed by Indian and then Iranian rice. The concentration of Aflatoxin in all samples, except for Pakistan samples, was lower than the detection limit. According to the results, the sample of organic rice with the least consumption of pesticides, the minimum amount of heavy metal, microbial and mycotoxin contamination is recommended to ensure public health.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • pollution
  • Organic
  • Rice
  • Health
  • Pesticides
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