تشخیص و اندازه‌گیری تعدادی از آفت‌کش‌های پایرتروئیدی در نمونه‌های سبزی با کروماتوگرافی‌گازی کوپل‌شده به اسپکترومترجرمی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه علوم و صنایع غذایی، واحد سراب، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، سراب، ایران

2 استادیار مرکز ایمنی غذا و دارو، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تبریز، تبریز، ایران؛ استادیار مرکز تحقیقات آنالیز دارویی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تبریز، تبریز، ایران

چکیده

اندازه‌گیری ترکیبات مضری که امکان ورود به مواد غذایی را دارند، از اهمیت بالایی برخوردار است. آفت‌کش‌ها یکی از مواد مهمی هستند که در فعالیت‌های کشاورزی از آن‌ها استفاده می‌شوند و به‌رغم تأثیر مثبت این مواد در افزایش تولیدات کشاورزی، بسیاری از این مواد برای سلامتی انسان‌ها و محیط ‌زیست مضر می‌باشند. پایرتروید‌ها از حشره‌کش‌های رایج مورد استفاده در کشاورزی و سموم خانگی هستند و به‌دلیل توانایی بسیار خوب آن‌ها در مبارزه با انواع آفات، به‌وفور مورد استفاده قرار می‌گیرند. در این کار پژوهشی یک روش کارآمد و قابل‌اطمینان بر اساس میکرو استخراج مایع-مایع همگن القاشده با دما به‌منظور استخراج و پیش تغلیظ آفت‌کش‌های پایروتروئیدی دلتامترین، بی‌فنترین، پرمترین، سای‌هالوترین و سایپرمترین از نمونه‌های سبزیجات کرفس، سیب‌زمینی، گوجه‌فرنگی، کاهو و پیاز و اندازه‌گیری آن‌ها به کمک کروماتوگرافی‌گازی مجهز به شناساگر اسپکترومتر جرمی توسعه داده ‌شده است. تحت شرایط بهینه، روش پیشنهادی اعتباربخشی شده و مقادیر بازده استخراج در محدوده 56 الی83 درصد به‌دست‌ آمد. هم‌چنین حدود تشخیص در بازه ۳/۴ تا ۴/۹ نانوگرم بر میلی‌لیتر حاصل شد که نشان از قابلیت بالای روش مورد استفاده در استخراج و آنالیز سموم پایرتیروئید دارد. از دیگر مزایای روش پیشنهادی می‌توان به ‌سادگی و ارزان بودن آن، مصرف کم حلال‌های آلی و زمان کوتاه آنالیز اشاره کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Detection and determination of some pyrethroid pesticides in fruit and vegetable samples using Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry

نویسندگان [English]

  • J. Khandaghi 1
  • M.R. Afshar Mogaddam 2
1 Assistant Professor of Department of Food Science and Technology, Sarab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sarab, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Food and Drug Safety Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran: Assistant Professor of Pharmaceutical Analysis Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

The measurement of harmful substances that may enter the food has particular importance. Pesticides are one of the most important compounds that are wieldy used in agricultural activities. Despite the positive effects of the application of pesticides in agriculture, many pesticides are harmful to the environment and are known or suspected to be toxic to humans. Pyrethroid pesticides are common pesticides used in agricultural and personal care products and due to their high efficiency in controlling different pests they widely used. In the present work, an efficient and reliable microextraction method based on temperature-induced homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction developed for the extraction of Delthamethrine, Biphenthrine, Permethrin, Cyhalothrin and Cypermethrine pyrethroid pesticides from potato, tomato, lettuce and onion and then its analyses performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The optimized method validated with recoveries ranging from 56 to 83%. The limits of detection were in the range of 4.3-9.4 ng mL-1, indicating high repeatability of the proposed method in the extraction and analysis of pyrethroid pesticides. Other advantages of this method include low cost and simplicity, low organic solvents consumption, and short analysis time.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • pyrethroid pesticides
  • Homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction
  • gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry
  • Vegetable
  • Abd El Megid, A., Abd El Fatah, M.E., El Asely, A., El Senosi, Y. and Dawood, M.A.O. (2020). Impact of pyrethroids and organochlorine pesticides residue on IGF-1 and CYP1A genes expression and muscle protein patterns of cultured Mugil capito. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 188: 109-117.
  • Amini, R., Khandaghi, J. and Afshar mogaddam, M.R. (2018). Combination of vortex-assisted liquid–liquid extraction and air-assisted liquid–liquid microextraction for the extraction of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol B in canned doogh samples. Food Analytical Methods, 11(11): 3267–3275.
  • Arvand, M., Bozorgzadeh, E. and Shariati, S. (2013). Two–phase hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction for preconcentration of pyrethroid pesticides residues in some fruits and vegetable juices prior to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 31(2): 275–283.
  • · Baig, S.A., Akhtera, N.A., Ashfaq, M. and Asi, M.R. (2009). Determination of the Organophosphorus Pesticide in Vegetables by High-Performance Liquid Chromatograph. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science, 6(5): 513-519.
  • Bhanti, M. and Taneja, A. (2007). Contamination of vegetables of different seasons with organophosphorous pesticides and related health risk assessment in northern India. Chemosphere, 69(1): 63-68.
  • Chandran, S. and Singh, R. (2007). Comparison of various international guidelines for analytical method validation. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 62(1): 4-14.
  • EU Pesticides database. (2005). Pesticide EU-MRLs. Regulation EC No. 396, Available at:  http://ec.europa.eu/sanco-pesticides.
  • European Commission Decision. (2002). Concerning the performance of analytical methods. Implementing Council Directive 657/EC.
  • Farajzadeh, M.A., Afshar Mogaddam, M.R. and Alizadeh Nabil, A.A. (2015). Polyol-enhanced dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography and nitrogen phosphorous detection for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides from aqueous samples, fruit juices, and vegetables. Journal of Separation Science, 38(23): 4086–4094.
  • Farajzadeh, M.A., Khoshmaram, L. and Alizadeh Nabil, A.A. (2014). Determination of pyrethroid pesticides residues in vegetable oils using liquid–liquid extraction and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography–flame ionization detection. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 34(2): 128–135.
  • Ghiasvand, A.R., S. Shadabi, E. Mohagheghzadeh and Hashemi, P. (2005). Homogenous liquid-liquid extraction method for the selective separation and preconcentration of ultra-trace molybdenum. Talanta, 66(4): 912–916.
  • Gilden, R.C., Huffling, K. and Sattler, B. (2010). Pesticides and health risks. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 39(1): 103–110.
  • Jalili, V., Barkhordari, A. and Ghiasvand A. (2019). New extraction media in microextraction techniques, a review of reviews. Microchemical Journal, 153: 104386. DOI: 10.1016/ 104386.
  • Jeddy, M. and Khandaghi, J. (2019). Detection and quantification of phytosterols in yogurt using gas chromatography. Journal of Food Hygiene, 9(1): 59-71. [In persian]
  • Lemos, V.A., Oliveira, L.A. (2015). Ultrasound-assisted temperature-controlled ionic liquid microextraction for the preconcentration and determination of cadmium content in mussel samples. Food Control, 50: 901-906.
  • Lompart, M., Celeiro, M. and Dagnac, T. (2019). Microwave-assisted extraction of pharmaceuticals, personal care products and industrial contaminants in the environment. Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 116:136-150.
  • Lu, Z., Gan, J., Cui, X., Delgado-Moreno, L. and Kunde Lin, K. (2019). Understanding the bioavailability of pyrethroids in the aquatic environment using chemical approaches. Environment International, 129: 194-207.
  • Mitra, S. (2003). Sample preparation techniques in analytical chemistry, John Wiley pub. New Jersey, pp. 12-35.
  • Pil-Bala, B., Khandaghi J. and Afshar Mogaddam, M.R. (2019). Analysis of endocrine-disrupting compounds from cheese samples using pressurized liquid extraction combined with dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Food Analytical Methods, 12(7): 1604–1611.
  • Psillakis, E. and Kalogerakis, N. (2003). Developments in liquid‒phase microextraction. Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 22(9): 565–574.
  • Saad Louy, F. and Khandaghi, J. (2018). Identification and quantification of fatty acids in edible and confectionary oils in Tabriz by gas chromatography. Journal of Food Hygiene, 8(2): 45-54. [In persian]
  • Saraji, M. (2005). Dynamic headspace liquid‒phase microextraction of alcohols. Journal of Chromatography A, 1062(1): 15‒21.
  • Tang, W., Wang, D., Wang, J., Wu, Z. and Yan, D. (2018). Pyrethroid pesticide residues in the global environment: An overview. Chemosphere, 191: 990-1007.
  • Yea, J., Yao, Z., Wang, Z., Nie, J. and Lia, Z. (2016). Determination of sixteen pyrethroids in water by Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction based on dissolved carbon dioxide flotation after emulsification microextraction by gas chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Analytical Methods, 8(32): 6194–6201.
  • Wang, H., Yan, H. and Qiao, J. (2012). Miniaturized matrix solid–phase dispersion combined with ultrasound–assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction for the determination of three pyrethroids in soil. Journal of Separation Science, 35(2): 292–298.