کارایی سه روش تخلیص در اندازه‌گیری داکسی‌نیوالنول و بررسی میزان آن در فرآورده‌های غلات

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه مواد غذایی، پژوهشکده صنایع غذایی و کشاورزی، پژوهشگاه استاندارد، کرج، ایران

2 کارشناس ارشد میکروبیولوژی، سازمان ملی استاندارد ایران، کرج، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه مواد غذایی، پژوهشکده صنایع غذایی و کشاورزی، پژوهشگاه استاندارد، کرج، ایران

4 کارشناس ارشد میکروبیولوژی، مرکز تحقیقات داروهای گیاهی رازی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی لرستان، لرستان، ایران

5 استادیار، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، ایران

چکیده

داکسی نیوالنول (دان) یک نوع مایکوتوکسین‌ است که توسط گونه‌های فوزاریوم تولید می‌شود. هدف از این بررسی مقایسه کارایی سه روش تخلیص (شامل ستون‌‌های ایمونوافینیتی و مایکوسپ 225 و 227) در اندازه‌گیری دان با استفاده از کروماتوگرافی مایع با کارآیی بالا (HPLC) و سپس اندازه‌گیری دان در فرآورده‌های غلات بود. ابتدا نمونه‌های آرد گندم در سه غلظت (ng/g 1200، 700، 200) با سم دان غنی شد و سپس مقدار بازیافت نمونه‌ها پس از تخلیص با ستون‌ها، اندازه‌گیری شد. همچنین مقدار دان در 60 نمونه فرآورده غلات (آرد گندم، برنج، آرد جو، نودل و نان) اندازه‌گیری گردید. نتایج نشان داد بیشترین مقدار بازیافت (بین 5/2±43/87 تا 2/2±17/95 درصد) مربوط به ستون ایمونوافینیتی بود. گرچه اختلاف معنی‌داری بین ستون ایمونوافینیتی و مایکوسپ 225 وجود نداشت. کمترین مقدار بازیافت با استفاده از ستون مایکوسپ 227 به‌دست آمد (P <0.05). از بین 60 نمونه مورد بررسی، 30 نمونه (50%) به سم دان آلوده بودند، اما مقدار دان در هیچ‌یک از 30 نمونه آلوده، از حد مجاز آن (ng/g 1000) بیشتر نبود. بیشترین میزان آلودگی (ng/g 3/724) در یک نمونه برنج مشاهده شد. این بررسی نشان داد که گرچه ستون ایمونوافینیتی در اندازه‌گیری دان قابلیت اطمینان بیشتری داشت اما نتایج بازیافت مایکوسپ 225 نیز کاملاً رضایت‌بخش بود. علاوه بر آن مقدار سم دان باید به‌طور مداوم در فرآورده‌های غلات توسط سازمان‌های قانون‌گذار اندازه‌گیری شده و احتیاط‌های لازم به عمل آید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Efficiency of three cleanup methods for determination of Deoxynivalenol and its determination in cereal products

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Jalili 1
  • R. Almasyan 2
  • A. Rahmani 3
  • A. Varehzardi 4
  • T. Basaki 5
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Food Industries and Agricultural Research, Standard Research Institute (SRI), Karaj, Iran
2 MSc of microbiology, National Standard Organization of Iran, Karaj, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Food Industries and Agricultural Research, Standard Research Institute (SRI), Karaj, Iran
4 M.Sc of Microbiology, Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Lorestan, Iran
5 Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Science, Payame Noor University, Iran
چکیده [English]

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species. The current study was aimed to compare the efficiency of three cleanup columns (immunoaffinity, MycoSepTM #225, MycoSepTM #227), applied for the determination of DON in cereal products, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). At first, wheat flour samples were spiked with DON at three concentrations (200, 700, 1200 ng/g), then recovery values were measured after cleanup with the columns. The amount of DON was also measured in 60 samples of cereal products (wheat flour, rice, barley flour, noodles and bread). The results showed that the highest recovery value (between 87.4±2.5 to 95.2±2.2%) was obtained from the immunoaffinity column. However, there was no significant difference between the immunoaffinity column and MycoSep 225. The lowest recovery value was obtained using MycoSep 227 column (P <0.05). The results also showed that 30 samples out of 60 (50%) were contaminated with DON. However, none of the samples exceeded the Iranian Standard limit (1000 ng/g). The highest contamination level (724.3 ng/g) was observed in a rice sample. The study showed that although the immunoaffinity column was more reliable in DON determination, MycoSep 225 showed promising recovery values. In addition, more precaution and measuring controls should be practiced by regulatory agencies to prevent mycotoxin contamination.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Deoxynivalenol
  • Cleanup
  • Cereal products
 

  • · Abramović, B., Jaji, I., Juri, V., Ferenc, F. and Gaal, F.F. (2005). Optimization of the determination of deoxynivalenol in cornsamples by liquid chromatography and a comparison of two clean-up principles. Journal of The Serbian Chemical Society, 70(7): 1005–1013.
  • · Bonnet, M., Roux, J., Mounien, L., Dallaporta, M. and Troadec, J.D. (2012). Advances in deoxynivalenol toxicity mechanisms: the brain as a target. Toxins (Basel), 4: 1120–1138.
  • · Commission Regulation (EC). (2006). Laying down the methods of sampling and analysis for the official control of the levels of mycotoxins in food stuffs, vol. L70, No. 401, 31-34.
  • · Deng, C., Li, C., Zhou, S., Wang, X., Xu, H., Wang, D. et al. (2018). Risk assessment of deoxynivalenol in high-risk area of China by human biomonitoring using an improved high throughput UPLC-MS/MS method. Scientific Reports, 8: 3901.
  • · European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2013). Scientific opinion on risks for animal and public health related to the presence of nivalenolin food and feed. EFSA, 11: 1–119.
  • · Farahany, E.M. and Jinap, S. (2009). Optimisation of the determination of deoxynivalenol in wheat flour by HPLC and a comparison of four clean-up procedures. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part A, 26(9): 1290-1297.
  • · Farahmandfar, R., Rashidaei Abandansari, S., Maghsoudlou, E. and Asnaashari, M. (2018). Determination of mycotoxin contamination in imported wheat to Mazandaran province by high performance liquid chromatography. Iranian Journal of Health and Environment, 11(1): 15-24. [In Persian]
  • · Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (2011). Mycotoxin regulatory guidance. A guide for grain elevators, feed manufacturers, grain processors and exporters. Compliance Guide-FDA Regulatory Guidance for Mycotoxins, 8-2011.
  • · Geng, Z., Yang, D., Zhou, M., Zhang, P., Wang, D., Liu, F. et al. (2014). Determination of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in cereals by hydrophilic interaction chromatographywith ultraviolet detection. Food Analytical Methods, 7: 1139–1146.
  • · Herrera, M.,  Bervis, N., Carramiñana, J.J., Juan, T.,  Herrera, A.,  Ariño, A. et al. (2019). Occurrence and exposure assessment of aflatoxins and deoxynivalenol in cereal-based baby foods for Infants. Toxins (Basel), 11(3): 150.
  • · Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (ISIRI). (2002). Food and ّfeed- Mycotoxins-Maximum tolerated level. ISIRI No. 5925. [In Persian]
  • · Jalili, M., Jinap, S. and Noranizan, M.A. (2010). Effect of gamma radiation on reduction of mycotoxins in black pepper. Food Control, 21: 1388–1393.
  • · Jalili, M. and Scotter, M. (2015). A review of aflatoxin M1 in liquid milk. Iranian Journal of Health, Safety & Environment, 2(2): 283-295.
  • · Jaukovic, M., Stanisic N., Nikodijević B. and Krnjaja V. (2014). Effects of temperature and time on deoxynivalenol (don) and zearalenone (ZON) content in corn. Matica Srpska Journal for Natural Sciences, 126, 25-34.
  • · Ji, F., Wu J, Zhao H., Xu, J. and Shi, J. (2015). Relationship of deoxynivalenolcontent in grain, chaff, and straw with Fusarium head blight severity in wheat varieties with various levels of resistance.Toxins (Basel), 7: 728–742.
  • · Kazan, K., Gardiner, D.M. and Manners, J.M. (2012). On the trail of a cereal killer: recent advances in Fusarium graminearum pathogenomics and hostresistance. Molecular Plant Pathology,13: 399–413.
  • · Köppen, R., Koch, M., Siegel, D., Merkel, S., Maul, R. and Nehls, I. (2010). Determination of mycotoxins in foods: current state of analytical methods and limitations. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 86(6): 1595–1612.
  • · Machado, L.V., Mallmann, C.A., Mallmann, A.O., Coel-ho, R.D. and Copetti, M.V. (2017). Deoxynivalenol in wheat and wheat products from a harvest affected by Fusarium head blight. Food Science and Technology (Campi-nas), 37(1): 8-12.
  • · Moretti, A., Panzarini, G., Somma, S., Campagna, C., Ravaglia, S., Logrieco, A.F. et al. (2014) Systemic growth of F. graminearumin wheat plants and related accumulation ofdeoxynivalenol. Toxins, 6:1308–1324.
  • · Pinton, P. and Oswald, I.P. (2014) Effect of deoxynivalenol and other type Btrichothecenes on the intestine: a review. Toxins (Basel), 6:1615–1643.
  • · Ramirez, M.L., Chulze, S. and Magan, N. (2006). Temperature and water activity effects on growth and temporal deoxynivalenol production by two Argentinean strains of Fusarium graminearum on irradiated wheat grain. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 106: 291–296.
  • · Trombete, F., Barros, A., Vieira, M., Saldanha, T., Armando Venâncio, A. and Fraga M. (2016). Simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside and nivalenol in wheat grains by HPLC-PDA with immunoaffinity column cleanup. Food Analytical Methods, 9: 2579–2586.
  • · Yazdanpanah, H., Shafaati, A., Foroutan, S.M., Zarghi, A., Aboul-fathi, F., Khoddam, A. et al. (2014). Occurrence of deoxynivalenol in foods for human consumption from Tehran, Iran. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 13 (Suppl): 87–92.

· Lattanzio, V.M.T., Solfrizzo, M. and Viscont, A. (2008). Determination of trichothecenes in cereals and derived products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, Food Additives and Contaminants, 25(3): 320-330.

·Abramović, B., Jaji, I., Juri, V., Ferenc, F. and Gaal, F.F. (2005). Optimization of the determination of deoxynivalenol in cornsamples by liquid chromatography and a comparison of twoclean-up principles. Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, 70(7): 1005–1013.

·Bonnet, M., Roux, J., Mounien, L., Dallaporta, M. and Troadec, J.D. (2012). Advances in deoxynivalenol toxicity mechanisms: the brain as a target. Toxins (Basel), 4: 1120–1138.

·Commission Regulation (EC). (2006). Laying down the methods of sampling and analysis for the official control of the levels of mycotoxins in food stuffs, vol. L70, No. 401, 31-34.

·Deng, C., Li, C., Zhou, S., Wang, X., Xu, H., Wang, D. et al. (2018). Risk assessment of deoxynivalenol in high-risk area of China by human biomonitoring using an improved high throughput UPLC-MS/MS method. Scientific Reports, 8: 3901.

·European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2013). Scientific opinion on risks for animal and public health related to the presence of nivalenolin food and feed. EFSA, 11: 1–119.

·Farahany, E.M. and Jinap, S. (2009). Optimisation of the determination of deoxynivalenol in wheat flour by HPLC and a comparison of four clean-up procedures. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part A, 26(9): 1290-1297.

·Farahmandfar, R., Rashidaei Abandansari, S., Maghsoudlou, E. and Asnaashari, M. (2018). Determination of mycotoxin contamination in imported wheat to Mazandaran province by high performance liquid chromatography. Iranian Journal of Health and Environment, 11(1): 15-24. [In Persian]

·Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (2011). Mycotoxin regulatory guidance. A guide for grain elevators, feed manufacturers, grain processors and exporters. Compliance Guide-FDA Regulatory Guidance for Mycotoxins, 8-2011.

·Geng, Z., Yang, D., Zhou, M., Zhang, P., Wang, D., Liu, F. et al. (2014). Determination of deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in cereals by hydrophilic interaction chromatographywith ultraviolet detection. Food Analytical Methods, 7: 1139–1146.

·Herrera,M.,  Bervis, N., Carramiñana, J.J., Juan, T.,  Herrera, A.,  Ariño, A. et al. (2019). Occurrence and exposure assessment of aflatoxins and deoxynivalenol in cereal-based baby foods for Infants. Toxins (Basel), 11(3): 150.

·Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (ISIRI). (2002). Food and ّfeed- Mycotoxins-Maximum tolerated level. ISIRI No. 5925. [In Persian]

·Jalili, M., Jinap, S. and Noranizan, M.A. (2010). Effect of gamma radiation on reduction of mycotoxins in black pepper. Food Control, 21: 1388–1393.

·Jalili, M. and Scotter, M. (2015). A review of aflatoxin M1 in liquid milk. Iranian Journal of Health, Safety & Environment, 2(2): 283-295.

·Jaukovic, M., Stanisic N., Nikodijević B. and Krnjaja V. (2014). Effects of temperature and time on deoxynivalenol (don) and zearalenone (ZON) content in corn. Matica Srpska Journal for Natural Sciences, 126, 25-34.

·Ji, F., Wu J, Zhao H., Xu, J. and Shi, J. (2015). Relationship of deoxynivalenolcontent in grain, chaff, and straw with Fusarium head blight severity in wheat varieties with various levels of resistance.Toxins (Basel), 7: 728–742.

·Kazan, K., Gardiner, D.M. and Manners, J.M. (2012). On the trail of a cereal killer: recent advances in Fusarium graminearum pathogenomics and hostresistance. Molecular Plant Pathology,13: 399–413.

·Köppen, R., Koch, M., Siegel, D., Merkel, S., Maul, R. and Nehls, I. (2010). Determination of mycotoxins in foods: current state of analytical methods and limitations. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 86(6): 1595–1612.

·Lattanzio, V.M.T., Solfrizzo, M. and Viscont, A. (2008). Determination of trichothecenes in cereals and derived products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, Food Additives and Contaminants, 25(3): 320-330.

·Machado, L.V., Mallmann, C.A., Mallmann, A.O., Coel-ho, R.D. and Copetti, M.V. (2017). Deoxynivalenol in wheat and wheat products from a harvest affected by Fusarium head blight. Food Science and Technology (Campi-nas), 37(1): 8-12.

·Moretti, A., Panzarini, G., Somma, S., Campagna, C., Ravaglia, S., Logrieco, A.F. et al. (2014) Systemic growth of F. graminearumin wheat plants and related accumulation ofdeoxynivalenol. Toxins, 6:1308–1324.

·Pinton, P. and Oswald, I.P. (2014) Effect of deoxynivalenol and other type Btrichothecenes on the intestine: a review. Toxins (Basel), 6:1615–1643.

·Ramirez, M.L., Chulze, S. and Magan, N. (2006). Temperature and water activity effects on growth and temporal deoxynivalenol production by two Argentinean strains of Fusarium graminearum on irradiated wheat grain. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 106: 291–296.

·Trombete, F., Barros, A., Vieira, M., Saldanha, T., Armando Venâncio, A. and Fraga M. (2016). Simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside and nivalenol in wheat grains by HPLC-PDA with immunoaffinity column cleanup. Food Analytical Methods, 9: 2579–2586.

·Yazdanpanah, H., Shafaati, A., Foroutan, S.M., Zarghi, A., Aboul-fathi, F., Khoddam, A. et al. (2014). Occurrence of deoxynivalenol in foods for human consumption from Tehran, Iran. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 13 (Suppl): 87–92.