تک‌یاخته‌های زئونوتیک منتقله از آب و موادغذایی تهدیدی ناشناخته به‌عنوان عوامل بیولوژیک در بیوتروریسم (مقاله مروری)

نوع مقاله: مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، متخصص انگل‌شناسی دامپزشکی، گروه پاتوبیولوژی، دانشکده دامپزشکی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

2 آزمایشگاه مرکزی، سازمان دامپزشکی کشور، همدان، ایران

چکیده

برخی از تک‌یاخته‌های زئونوتیک به‌راحتی از طریق موادغذایی و آب منتقل و باعث بیماری‌های جدی در انسان و حیوان می‌شوند. این عوامل بیماریزا به‌علت اینکه برخی از خصوصیات یک عامل بیولوژیک مؤثر از جمله دوره کمون و دوز عفونی پایین، مقاومت بالا در برابر ضدعفونی‌کننده‌ها را دارا هستند. بنابراین می‌توانند به‌عنوان یک عامل بیولوژیک ناشناخته در بیوتروریسم ایفای نقش کنند. با تهدیدات فزاینده بیوتروریسم و عوامل بیولوژیکی و استفاده آن‌ها توسط برخی از کشورهای استعمارگر، شناسایی و شناخت این عوامل ناشناخته و راه‌های پیشگیری از آن امری ضروری به‌نظر می‌رسد. بر اساس یک مطالعه سیستماتیک کلید واژه‌های بیوتروریسم، بیولوژیک و زئونوزهای تک یاخته‌ای، انگل، اسامی انگل‌های منتقله از آب و مواد غذایی در پایگاه‌های معتبر اطلاعاتی جستجو و موضوعات مرتبط مطالعه گردید. نتایج مطالعه حاضر نشان می‌دهد که تک‌یاخته‌های زئونوزتیک نظیر ژیاردیا اینتستینالیس، انتاموبا هیستولیتیکا، کریپتوسپوریدیوم پارووم و توکسوپلاسما گوندی که توانایی انتقال از طریق موادغذایی و آب را دارند، به‌عنوان عوامل بیولوژیکی در حملات بیوتروریسم ایفای نقش می‌کنند. از آنجایی که این تک‌یاخته‌ها در برابر برخی از ضدعفونی‌کننده‌ها از جمله کلر و دماهای پایین مقاوم هستند، بنابراین تنها راه مقابله با آن‌ها در زمان‌های بحران، جوشاندن آب در دمای 60 درجه سلسیوس به‌مدت 15-10 دقیقه و نیز پختن کامل موادغذایی مشکوک به آلودگی می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Waterborne and foodborne zoonotic protozoa, an unknown threat as a biological agent in bioterrorism

نویسندگان [English]

  • N. Hajipour 1
  • J. Gharekhani 2
1 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
2 Department of Central Veterinary Laboratory Science, Iranian Veterinary Organization, Hamedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Some zoonotic protozoa can be easily transmitted through food and water and cause serious illnesses in humans and animals. Because these pathogenic agents have some characteristics of an effective biological agent such as latent period, low infectious doses, high resistance to disinfectants, they can play a role as an unknown biological agent in bioterrorism. Considering the increasing threats of bioterrorism, biological agents and their use by some colonial countries, it is necessary to identify and recognize these unknown agents and ways to prevent them. Based on a systematic study some keywords such as” bioterrorism”, “biologic”, and “protozoa zoonosis”, parasite” and names of some waterborne and foodborne parasites were searched in reliable information databases and then the related topics were studied carefully. The results of this study show that in addition to bacteria, viruses and their toxins, zoonotic protozoa such as Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Toxoplasma gondii which can be transmitted through food and water, can act as biologically hazardous agents in bioterrorism. Because these zoonotic protozoa are resistant to some disinfectants, for example, chlorine and low temperatures, so the only way to deal with these biological agents at times of crisis is to boil the water for 10-15 min at 60 ° C as well as to cook completely those food materials with the probability of contamination.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aflatoxin M1
  • raw milk
  • Elisa
  • Mazandaran

 

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