شناسایی و اندازه‌گیری فیتواسترول‌ها در ماست به‌روش کروماتوگرافی‌گازی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد علوم و صنایع غذایی، واحد سراب، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی ، سراب، ایران

2 استادیار گروه علوم و صنایع غذایی، واحد سراب، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی ، سراب، ایران

چکیده

استرول‌ها بزرگترین جزء ترکیبات غیرصابونی‌شونده لیپیدها را تشکیل می‌دهند. عمده‌ترین ترکیبات استرولی چربیها و روغن‌های گیاهی، فیتواسترول‌ها هستند که فراوان‌ترین انواع آنها در گیاهان عبارتند از سیتواسترول، کمپسترول و استیگماسترول. انواع ماست بخصوص ماستهای پرچرب یکی از غذاهای مناسب حامل استرول‌های گیاهی می‌باشد. در این مطالعه کلسترول و ۴ ترکیب فیتواسترولی ۶۲ نوع ماست مختلف در شهر تبریز شناسایی و اندازه‌گیری شده‌است. برای این‌منظور پس‌از صابونی کردن و استخراج مایع-مایع نمونه‌ها، مواد غیر‌صابونی‌شونده با روش کروماتوگرافی لایه نازک خالص سازی و به‌روش کروماتوگرافی‌گازی با آشکارساز یونیزاسیون شعله‌ای، بدون مرحله مشتق‌سازی شناسایی شدند. مراحل صابونی کردن بهینه‌سازی و اعتبار سنجی گردید. روش مذکور آسان، سریع و تکرارپذیر بوده و از کارائی بالایی در تشخیص استرول‌ها در نمونه‌های ماست برخوردار است. بیشترین ترکیب استرولی در نمونه‌های ماست کلسترول (۶۵ تا ۹۹ درصد) بوده و از بین استرول‌های گیاهی، کمپسترول (۷/۴ درصد) و پس از آن براسیکاسترول (۰۸/۲ درصد) غالب بودند. بر‌‌ اساس استاندار‌های ملی ایران، در مجموع ۴۶ نمونه ماست (۲/۷۴ درصد) غیر قابل مصرف تشخیص داده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Detection and quantification of phytosterols in yogurt using gas chromatography

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Jeddy 1
  • J. Khandaghi 2
1 M.Sc Graduate of Food Science and Technology, Sarab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sarab, Iran
2 Assistance Professor of Department of Food Science and Technology, Sarab Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sarab, Iran
چکیده [English]

Sterols form the largest proportion of the unsaponifiable fraction of lipids. Plant fats and oils contain phytosterol as naturally occurring constituents. The most common types of phytosterols in plants are cytosterol, compressor and stigmometol. Different types of yogurt and especially high-fat types are foods that are likely to contain added phytosterol. In this study, the presence of cholesterol and four phytosterols in 62 different yogurts in Tabriz city was investigated in order to assess the addition of vegetable oils. For this purpose, after saponification and liquid-liquid extraction of the samples, non-absorbent materials were purified by thin layer chromatography. Then, without the derivative step, the compounds were detected by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. In the recent study, the saponification process was optimized and validated. According to the results, the method was estimated as easy, fast and repeatable, and had a high efficiency in detecting sterols in our samples. Cholesterol was found as the highest sterolic compound in all samples (65-99%). Among the phytosterols, campesterol was predominated (4.7%) followed by brassicasterol (2.08%). According to the guidelines of Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran, 46 (74.2%) yogurt samples were found unacceptable.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Phytosterol
  • Yogurt
  • Gas Chromatography
  • Thin layer chromatography
  • Azadmard-Damirchi, S. (2010). Review of the use of phytosterols as a detection tool for adulteration of olive oil with hazelnut oil. Food Additive and Contaminants, 27(1): 1-10.
  • Carreraa, F., Leon-Camachob, M., Pablosa, F. and Gonzalez, A.G. (1998). Authentication of green coffee varieties according to their sterolic profile. Analytica Chimica Acta, 370: 131-139.
  • Cynthia, T.S. and Ermias, A.H. (2015). Quantification of plant sterols/stanols in foods and dietary supplements containing added phytosterols. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 40: 163–176.
  • Derakhshan-Honarparvar, M., Hamedi, M.M. and Pirouzifard, M.Kh. (2010). Rice bran phytosterols of three widespread iranian cultivars. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 12: 167-172.
  • Domeno, C., Ruiz, B. and Nerin, C. (2005). Determination of sterols in biological samples by SPME with on-fiber derivatization and GC/FID. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 381: 1576-1583.
  • Duong, S., Strobel, N., Buddhadasa, S., Stockham, K., Auldist, M., Wales, B.  et al. (2016). Rapid measurement of phytosterols in fortified food using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Food Chemistry, 211: 570–576.
  • Farajzadeh, M.A., Nouri, N. and Khorram, P. (2014). Derivatization and microextraction methods for determination of organic compounds by gas chromatography (Review). Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 55: 14–23.
  • Fathi-Achachlouei, B., Alirezalu, K., Azadmard-Damirchi, S. (2016). Evaluation of oil content, fatty acids profile and phytosterols of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum L.) oil in several different ecotypes in north -west of Iran. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(13): 25-34.
  • Georgios, P.D., Aristidis, S.T., Caminb, F., Brusicc, V. and Georgioua, C.A. (2016). Food authentication: techniques, trends & emerging approaches. Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 85: 123- 132.
  • Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (2009). Anhydrous milk fat– Determination of sterol composition by gas liquid chromatography (Reference method). 1st edition, ISIRI No. 11880. [In Persian]
  • Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. (2016). Pasteurized butter-Specifications and test methods. 6th revision, ISIRI No. 162. [In Persian]
  • Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. (2016). Pasteurized & UHT cream-Specifications & test method. Amendment No.1, ISIRI No. 191. [In Persian]
  • Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran.  (2008). Yogurt – Specifications and test methods. 4th revision, ISIRI No. 695. [In Persian]
  • Kamal-Eldin, A. and Appelqvist, L.A. (1994). Variations in the composition of sterols, tocopherols and lignans in seed oils from 4 sesamum species. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 71(2): 149–156.
  • Lagarda, M.J., Garcıa-Llatas, G. and Farre, R. (2006). Analysis of phytosterols in foods (Review). Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 41: 1486–1496.
  • Moreau, R.A., Whitaker, B.D. and Hicks, K.B. (2002). Phytosterols, phytostanols and their conjugates in foods: structural diversity, quantitative analysis and health promoting uses. Progress in Lipid Research, 41: 457–500.
  • Piironen, V., Lindsay, D.G., Miettinen, T.A., Toivo, J. and Lampi, A.M. (2000). Plant sterols: biosynthesis , biological function and their importance to human nutrition. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 80(7): 939-966.
  • Piironen, V., Toivo, J. and Lampi, A.M. (2002). Plant sterols in cereals and cereal products. Cereal Chemistry, 79: 148–154.
  • Santos, R., Limas, E., Sousa, M., Castilho, M.C., Ramos, F. and Silveira, M.I.N. (2007). Optimization of analytical procedures for GC–MS determination of phytosterols and phytostanols in enriched milk and yoghurt. Food Chemistry, 102: 113–117.
  • Saraiva, D., da Conceição Castilho, M., do Rosário Martins, M., da Silveira M.I.N. and Ramos F. (2011). Evaluation of phytosterols in milk and yogurts used as functional foods in Portugal. Food Analitical Methods, 4: 28–34.
  • Tamime, A.Y. and Deeth, H. (1980). Yogurt: Technology and biochemistry. Journal of Food Protection, 43: 939-977.
  • Tsape, K., Sinanoglou, V.J., Miniadis-Meimaroglou, S. (2010). Comparative analysis of the fatty acid and sterol profiles of widely consumed Mediterranean crustacean species. Food Chemistry, 122: 292–299.