بررسی امکان کاربری عصاره گیاه کارده (Biarum carduchcorum) به‌عنوان رنت گیاهی در تولید پنیر سفید ایرانی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری تخصصی بهداشت مواد غذایی، دانشکده دامپزشکی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه بهداشت مواد غذایی، دانشکده دامپزشکی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

3 استاد گروه بهداشت مواد غذایی، دانشکده دامپزشکی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

4 استاد بخش بیوشیمی، دانشکده دامپزشکی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران

چکیده

محدودیت تولید و قیمت بالای مایه پنیر حیوانی موجب گردیده که تاکنون تلاش­های متعددی جهت جایگزینی آن با سایر پروتئازهای منعقد کننده شیر، انجام شود. گیاه کارده به‌دلیل فعالیت پروتئازی بالا می­تواند یکی از گزینه­های احتمالی این جایگزینی باشد. مطالعات چندانی در خصوص این گیاه و آنزیم­های آن تا به‌حال صورت نگرفته است. هدف از تحقیق حاضر تهیه­ عصاره گیاه کارده، اندازه­گیری فعالیت پروتئازی آن جهت انعقاد شیر و تولید پنیر سفید ایرانی و مطالعه­ خواص فیزیکوشیمیایی و ارگانولپتیکی محصول بود. پس از تولید پنیر توسط عصاره گیاهی به‌میزان 5/0%، خصوصیات حسی، بافتی و شاخص حلالیت نیتروژن آن در مقایسه با نمونه­ شاهد در طی دوره رسیدن 45 روزه مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج این بررسی نشان داد که اپتیمم فعالیت پروتئازی آنزیم­های عصاره جهت انعقاد شیر در دمای °C 45، 5pH= و غلظت mmol/ml 15 نمک CaCl2 بود. در نمونه­ پنیر تهیه شده با آنزیم گیاهی، طعم تلخ بیشتر و بوی پنیر تیزتر بود. در آنالیز بافتی، پنیر حاصل از سفتی کمتری برخوردار بود. ارزیابی فرآیند پروتئولیز طی دوره رسیدن پنیر با اندازه­گیری شاخص نیتروژن محلول نشان داد که شدت پروتئولیز نمونه­ پنیر تهیه شده با آنزیم گیاهی، به‌طور معنی­داری (05/0 p<) بیشتر از نمونه شاهد بود. لذا به‌نظر می­رسد عصاره گیاه کارده در غلظت به‌کار رفته برای تولید پنیر سفید ایرانی جایگزین مناسبی برای رنت نباشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Possibility of Biarum carduchcorum application as vegetable rennet in production of Iranian white cheese

نویسندگان [English]

  • H. Golkari 1
  • H.R. Gheisari 2
  • S.S. Shekarforoush 3
  • M. Aminlari 4
  • M. Raeisi 1
1 Ph.D. Student of Food Hygiene, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
2 . Associate Professor of Food Hygiene Department, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
3 Professor of Food Hygiene Department, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
4 Professor of Biochemistry Department, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Numerous attempts have been made to replace calf rennet with another milk-clotting protease because of limited supply and the high price of calf rennet.Biarum carduchcorum is rich in protease activities, therefore it is a probable candidate for substitution. No systematic study on the Biarum carduchcorum and its enzyme characteristics have been conducted so far. The purpose of this study was to prepare Biarumextract, determination of its protease activity for milk clotting and production of Iranian white cheese and study on the physicochemical and organoleptic properties of the product. After the cheese production by the vegetable extract (0.5% concentration) organoleptic, textural properties and nitrogen solubility index (NSI) were analyzed during 45 days of ripening compared to the control sample. The results of this study showed that the optimal protease activity of the extracted enzymes for milk clotting was at 45 oC, pH= 5 and 15 mmol/ml concentration of CaCl2.The cheese sample that was manufactured with vegetable enzyme had a bitter flavor and sharper odor. At textural analysis, the cheese had a lower hardness. Assessment of proteolysis during the cheese ripening by NSI measurement showed that the proteolysis severity of cheese sample produced with vegetable enzyme was significantly higher than the control sample. Therefore, it seems that aqueous extract ofBiarum in concentration used for the production of Iranian white cheese cannot be a suitable substitute for rennet.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biarum carduchcorum
  • Iranian white cheese
  • Proteolysis
  • Rennet
  • Vegetable extract
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